Invasive and Exotic Species Compendium 1982-2002


What is an exotic species?

An exotic species is a species found outside of its natural range or one that is historically not native to an area - one that readily invades other biotic communities, disrupting community function. Invasive species can pose a serious threat to the biological diversity of an area.

Message from Randy R. Heidorn, NAA Board President 2012-2015

The participants in the 1999 Natural Areas Techniques Forum in Tucson identified invasive exotic species as the number one stewardship concern in natural areas. They felt that the NAA needed to expand its role as a venue for presenting and developing information on exotic and invasive species, and kicked off an effort to gather all information on the topic that had been published in the Natural Areas Journal.  In October 1992, NAA published the original compendium of 43 articles on exotic species from the first eleven volumes of the Natural Areas Journal - later expanded to 93 articles published through the end of 2001. The articles can be located under eleven separate topics listed in the table of contents. References in the articles have been combined to form a bibliography on exotic and invasive species (and related topics) including an estimated 1750 entries. 

Since the Tucson forum, NAA has had active work groups concerned with invasive species in general and with some specific species, continues to feature sessions at subsequent Natural Areas Conferences on invasive and exotic species, and has actively participated with the National Invasive Species Council and many state and regional Exotic Pest Plant Councils. After discussion, the Board of Directors of NAA adopted a policy relating to invasive exotic species. The policy specifically directs the NAA to “provide a forum for the sharing of results of invasive species management programs and encourages open dialogue on the management of invasive exotic species in natural areas and other wildlands.”

The Management and Technology Development Committee and the Board of Directors of the Natural Areas Association would like to acknowledge the authors whose articles contributed to the Natural Areas Journal are included in this work. This compendium would not be possible without their support of the Natural Areas Journal. We also want to recognize the past and present editors, members of the Editorial Board, editorial staff of the Natural Areas Journal, and the Dr. Charles E. Williams and Laura M. Cotterman, who were serving the Journal as Editor and Managing Editor during the time this Compendium was assembled. We acknowledge the current publisher of the Natural Areas Journal, Allen Press. We also thank the United States Bureau of Land Management for its financial support of this project. Special thanks to Reid Schuller, past Executive Director of the Natural Areas Association and Barbara Ver Steeg, the compiler of this revised compendium, for their diligent work.
Randy R. Heidorn
NAA Board President 2012-2015
2002 Invasive and Exotic Species Compendium Introduction

Chronological Article Listing - Click to view full text

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) a challenge in natural areas management,
1982 [2(2):10-13]
B. Heidel

The effects of exotic plant and animal species on nature preserves, 1982
S.P. Bratton

Literature review of the management practices for absinth sage (Artemisia
, 1982 [2(4):3-9]
J.E. Evans

Exotic shrubs a potential problem in natural area management in Illinois, 1983
J.E. Ebinger

A literature review of management practices for multiflora rose (Rosa
1983 [3(1):6-15]
J.E. Evans

Literature review of management practices for smooth sumac (Rhus glabra),
poison ivy (Rhus radicans) and other sumac species,
1983 [3(1):16-26]
J.E. Evans

Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica): a literature review of management
, 1984 [4(2):4-10]
J.E. Evans

Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense): a literature review of management practices,
1984 [4(2):11-21]
J.E. Evans

Naturalized winged wahoo (Euonymus alatus) in Illinois, 1984 [4(2):26-29]
J.E. Ebinger, J. Newman and R. Nyboer

Cattail (Typha spp.) management, 1985 [5(3):9-17]
S.I. Apfelbaum

Exotics and their ecological ramifications, 1986 [6(4):20-26]
F.M. Harty

Ecology and control of reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), 1987
S.I. Apfelbaum and C.E. Sams

One-year study of fire effects on Rhamnus frangula L., 1988 [8(2):120-121]
T.W. Post

Exotic plant species ranking system, 1988 [8(2):121]
R. Hiebert and K. Klick

The viability of cut-leaved teasel (Dipsacus laciniatus L.) seed harvested from
flowering stems - management implications,
1989 [9(2):102-105]
M.K. Solecki

Two year study of fire effects on Rhamnus frangula L., 1989 [9(3):175-176]
T.W. Post and E. McCloskey

Experimental use of herbicides to control black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia
L.) populations,
1989 [9(3):176]
M. Scheerer and M.T. Jackson

Feral animal control: Santa Cruz Island, California, 1989 [9(4):265]
P. Schuyler

Effective management plan for the exotic mountain goats in Olympic National
1990 [10(1):12-18]
B. Carlquist

Comparison of economic feasibility of chemical control strategies on differing
age and density classes of Schinus terebinthifolius
, 1990 [10(1):28-34]
R.F. Doren and L.D. Whiteaker

Loss of hill prairie through woody plant invasion at Pere Marquette State Park,
Jersey County, Illionis
, 1990 [10(2):69-75]
W.E. McClain and E.A. Anderson

Effect of fire on different size individuals of Schinus terebinthifolius, 1990
R.F. Doren and L.D. Whiteaker

An ecological restoration model: application to razed residential sites, 1990
R.D. Hiebert

Mountain goat management in Olympic National Park: a progress report, 1991
D.B. Houston, E.G. Schreiner, B.B. Moorhead, and R.W. Olson

Vegetation management guideline: garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata [Bieb.]
Cavara & Grande,
1991 [11(2):120-121]
V. Nuzzo, J. Kennay and G. Fell

Vegetation management guideline: autumn olive, Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.,
1991 [11(2):121-122]
R.E. Szafoni

The U.S. National Park Service experience with exotic species, 1991
F.E. Hester

Past successes and current prospects in biological control of weeds in the
United States and Canada
, 1991 [11(3):129-142]
C.J. DeLoach

The philosophy, procedures, and cost of developing a classical biological
control of weeds project,
1991 [11(3):143-147]
J.J. Drea, Jr.

History of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) biological control efforts,
1991 [11(3):148-150]
D.Q. Thompson

Prospects for a classical biological control project against purple loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria L.)
, 1991 [11(3):151-157]
S.D. Hight and J.J. Drea, Jr.

Experimental control of garlic mustard [Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara &
Grande] in northern Illinois using fire, herbicide, and cutting
, 1991
V.A. Nuzzo

Naturalized amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.) in Illinois, 1991 [11(3):170-171]
J.E. Ebinger and W.E. McClain

Vegetation management guideline: leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), 1991
M.A.R. Cole

Vegetation management guideline: purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.),
1991 [11(3):172-173]
R. Heidorn and B. Anderson

Vegetation management guideline: cut-leaved teasel (Dipsacus laciniatus L.)
and common teasel (D. sylvestris Huds.)
, 1991 [11(4):213-214]
W.D. Glass

Vegetation management guideline: white and yellow sweet clover [Melilotus
alba Desr. and Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.],
1991 [11(4):214-215]
M.A.R. Cole

Vegetation management guideline: multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.),
1991 [11(4):215-216]
R.E. Szafoni

Vegetation management guideline: exotic buckthorns - common buckthorn
(Rhamnus cathartica L.), glossy buckthorn (R. frangula L.) and Dahurian
buckthorn (R. davurica Pall.)
, 1991 [11(4):216-217]
R. Heidorn

Vegetation management guideline: white poplar (Populus alba L.), 1992
W.D. Glass

Vegetation management guideline: moneywort (Lysimachia nummularia L.),
1992 [12(1):40]
J. Kennay and G. Fell

Vegetation management guideline: Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.), 1992
J. Kennay and G. Fell

Vegetation management guideline: quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides
, 1992 [12(1):41-42]
J. Kennay and G. Fell

Vegetation management guideline: wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.), 1992
J. Kennay and G. Fell

Vegetation management guideline: osage orange (Maclura pomifera (Raf.)
, 1992 [12(1):43-44]
B. Glass

Consumption of seeds of the invasive amur honeysuckle, Lonicera maackii
(Rupr.) Maxim., by small mammals
, 1992 [12(2):86-89]
C.E. Williams, J.J. Ralley, and D.H. Taylor

Invasive, exotic shrubs: a paradox for natural area managers?, 1992 [12(2):109-
C.J. Whelan and M.L. Dilger

Prescribed burning and other possible management tools for suppression of
woody species in Maine fens,
1992 [12(3):155]
S.C. Rooney, C.S. Campbell and G.L. Jacobson, Jr.

Vegetation management guideline: fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), 1992
M. Hutchison

Vegetation management guideline: smooth sumac (Rhus glabra L.), 1992
M. Hutchison

Vegetation management guideline: reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.),
1992 [12(3):159]
M. Hutchison

Vegetation management guideline: Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.),
1992 [12(3):160-161]
M. Hutchison

Vegetation management guideline: round-leaved bittersweet (Celastrus
orbiculatus Thunb.)
, 1992 [12(3):161]
M. Hutchison

Seed germination biology of the weedy biennial Alliaria petiolata, 1992
J.M. Baskin and C.C. Baskin

Weed laws: a historical review and recommendations, 1992 [12(4):216-217]
B. Rappaport

Vegetation management guideline: Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica
, 1992 [12(4):217-218]
R. Nyboer

Vegetation management guideline: bush honeysuckles - tatarian, Morrow's,
belle, and amur honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica L., L. morrowii Gray, L. x
bella Zabel, and L. maackii [Rupr.] Maxim.)
, 1992 [12(4):218-219]
R. Nyboer

Vegetation management guideline: Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense [L.]
1992 [12(4):219-220]
M. Hutchison

Vegetation management guideline: wintercreeper or climbing euonymus
(Euonymus fortunei),
1992 [12(4):220-221]
M. Hutchison

Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) patch expansion, 1993 [13(2):131-132]
D.A. Bangsund, R.K. Stroh, and J.A. Leitch

Natural mortality of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande)
1993 [13(2):132-133]
V.A. Nuzzo

The exotic empress tree, Paulownia tomentosa: an invasive pest of forests?,
1993 [13(3):221-222]
C.E. Williams

The impact of nonindigenous crested wheatgasses on native black grass bugs in
North America: a case for ecosystem management
, 1994 [14(2):136-138]
J.D. Lattin, A. Christie, and M.D. Schwartz

Additional notes on invasiveness of Paulownia tomentosa in natural areas, 1994
K.R. Langdon and K.D. Johnson

Comparison of fire, herbicide, and sod removal to control exotic vegetation,
1994 [14(3):217-218]
Y.D. Choi and N.D. Pavlovic

Phragmites australis (P. communis): threats, management, and monitoring,
1994 [14(4):285-294]
M. Marks, B. Lapin, and J. Randall

Star-of-Bethlehem, Ornithogalum umbellatum L. (Liliaceae): an invasive,
naturalized plant in woodlands of Ohio
, 1994 [14(4):306-307]
B.G. DeMars

Selective control of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum [L.] Gaertn. and A.
desertorum Fisch.) in the northern Great Plains,
1994 [14(4):308-309]
J.T. Romo, P.L. Grilz and L. Delanoy

Response of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata Bieb. [Cavara and Grande]) to
summer herbicide treatment
, 1994 [14(4):309-310]
V.A. Nuzzo

Management considerations for controlling smooth brome in fescue prairie,
1995 [15(2):148-156]
P.L. Grilz and J.T. Romo

Control of false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), a non-native plant, in riparian areas
in Connecticut,
1995 [15(3):279]
B. Lapin and P. Nothnagle

Effects of a prescribed fire on degraded forest vegetation, 1996 [16(3):184-
M.W. Schwartz and J.R. Heim

Alien smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) in a tallgrass prairie remnant:
seed bank, seedling establishment, and growth dynamics
, 1996
G.W. Blankespoor and J.K. May

Controlling glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula L.) with winter herbicide
treatments of cut stumps
, 1997 [17(1):38-41]
J.A. Reinartz

Roadside soils: a corridor for invasion of xeric scrub by nonindigenous plants,
1997 [17(2):99-109]
C.H. Greenberg, S.H. Crownover, and D.R. Gordon

Introduction, impact on native habitats, and management of a woody invader,
the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.
, 1997 [17(3):255-
K.A. Bruce, G.N. Cameron, P.A. Harcombe, and G. Jubinsky

Fire effects on four growth stages of smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.),
1997 [17(4):306-312]
G.D. Willson and J. Stubbendieck

Mechanical control of Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica [Houtt.]): effects of
cutting regime on rhizomatous reserves, 1997
L.A. Seiger and H.C. Merchant

Topographic alterations, forest structure, and invasion of English ivy (Hedera
helix L.) in the Rock Creek Floodplain, Washington, D.C.,
L.K. Thomas, Jr.

The native status of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in the inland
Northwest, USA,
1998 [18(3):223-230]
M.F. Merigliano and P. Lesica

Lack of public awareness of biological invasions by plants, 1998 [18(3):262-
T.F. Colton and P. Alpert

The effects of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on species diversity and
composition of black oak savanna/woodland communities
, 1999
R.L. Peloquin and R.D. Hiebert

Structure and function of fish communities in the Southern Lake Michigan Basin
with emphasis on restoration of native fish communities
, 1999
T.P. Simon and P.M. Stewart

Invasion of carrotwood (Cupaniopsis anacardioides) in Florida natural areas
1999 [19(3):254-262]
C.S. Lockhart, D.F. Austin, W.E. Jones, and L.A. Downey

Effects of Imperata cylindrica (L). Beauv. (Cogongrass) invasion on fire regime
in Florida sandhill (USA)
, 2000 [20(2):140-149]
C.L. Lippincott

Repeated prescribed burning at Dinsmore Woods State Nature Preserve
(Kentucky, USA): responses of the understory community
, 2000
J.O. Luken and M. Shea

Impact and control of Vinca minor L. in an Illinois Forest Preserve (USA), 2000
K. Schulz and C. Thelen

Glossy buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula L.: a threat to riparian plant communities
of the Northern Allegheny Plateau (USA),
2000 [20(3):290-292]
S.L. Possessky, C.E. Williams, and W.J. Moriarity

Volunteer monitoring of nonindigenous invasive plant species in the Adirondack
Park, New York, USA,
2001 [21(2):189-196]
W.T. Brown, M.E. Krasny, and N. Schoch

Cost savings from properly managing endangered species habitats, 2001
L.Y. Chen

Developing biological control of Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara and Grande
(garlic mustard)
, 2001 [21(4):357-367]
B. Blossey, V. Nuzzo, H. Hinz, and E. Gerber

Nontarget feeding of leaf-beetles introduced to control purple loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria L.)
, 2001 [21(4):368-377]
B. Blossey, R. Casagrande, L. Tewskbury, D.A. Landis, R.N. Wiedenmann,
and D.R. Ellis

Control of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) at Beall Woods Nature
Preserve, Illinois, USA,
2001 [21(4):386-388]
B. Edgin and J.E. Ebinger



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